Technical Means of Automated Spectrum Monitoring Systems


At the time IRCOS has designed a variety of high-performance multi-functional technical means intended for radio monitoring and direction finding, which are based on ARGAMAK digital panoramic radio receivers. These technical means can be used in any natural and climatic conditions, and can be supplied in fixed (maintenance-free), mobile (ground-based or aerial), transportable, or portable (including manpack) versions. The technical novelty of the technical means is confirmed by patents on methods and solutions.

Technical means supplied by IRCOS are discussed in detail in the subsequent sections of the Catalogue. Let us review the most typical ones.

First off, let us dwell on ARCHA-IN and ARCHA-INM Fixed Radio Monitoring Stations. These are unattended stations, i.e. they do not require attending personnel and are controlled remotely. Usually stations are located in densely populated areas, cities and industrial centers. The required quantity of stations is determined by the area, terrain and the type of radio electronic equipment used in the particular area. For determination of sources position, any point of monitored territory should be in a coverage area of at least two direction finding or measuring direction finding stations.

ARCHA-IN Fixed Measurement Unattended Fixed Radio Monitoring Station. It consists of two main units: ARTIKUL-S correlative interferometer radio direction finder and ARGAMAK-IS panoramic measuring digital radio receiver (field strength meter). The equipment is installed in special protected boxes, which enables its outdoor installation without using service premises, e.g. immediately on rooftop of building. The standard ambient temperature range is minus 55ºC to plus 55ºC.



The antenna system of ARTIKUL-S Radio Direction Finder and measuring antenna of the external field sensor unit and ARGAMAK-IS panoramic measuring receiver with measuring antennae on a swivel gear.

The feature of ARTIKUL-S Direction Finder included in the station is an integrated radio receiver integrated immediately into the base of the circular antenna array. Such design solution removes the antenna effect, ensures high sensitivity and accuracy of direction finding. Another interesting feature is the possibility of signal direction finding in short-wave range in HF range starting from 1.5 MHz. In the maximum configuration, the upper operating frequency of the direction finder is 8000 MHz.

Omnidirectional active antenna – external field sensor unit can be used as measuring antennae for ARGAMAK-IS digital radio receiver, and directional antennae mounted on a rotary support can be used as well. The lower operating frequency is 0.009 MHz, and the upper frequency is 18000 MHz, when ARC-KNV4 Frequency Down-Converter is available as a part of the station.

ARCHA-INM Fixed Measuring Unattended Station of Radio Monitoring. Its difference from ARCHA-IN Station is that it consists only of one receiving unit installed on a single mast. ARGAMAK-IS panoramic measuring receiver with an additional (second) synchronous radio signal channel is placed in the receiving unit. Such a solution allows combing in a single device the capabilities of the measuring receiver and the correlation interferometer.



ARCHA-INM station and ARGUMENT-I mobile measuring station on the basis of UAZ Patriot

Like in ARTIKUL-S Direction Finder, the receiver is integrated in ARCHA-INM station in the base of the circular direction finding antenna system. In order to measure field strength, the antenna of external field sensor unit, placed above the circular direction finding array is used. Transmission of data and control commands through the drop cable is carried out in the digital form via the Ethernet interface (twisted pair or fiber optics). It is used to transmit commands and digital data streams: temporary selection of radio signals, spectra, demodulated signals, etc. The use of integrated digital receiver and digital data transmission interfaces removes the antenna effect in the drop cable, ensures high sensitivity, and also accuracy of direction finding and measurements and signal parameter measurements, retains dynamic range, allows using the drop cable with a length of about 100 m and more, and in addition simplifies calibrations of the measuring.

Along with the fixed stations, the system normally includes mobile stations with the measurement and direction finding means. Using mobile stations allows ensuring the required coverage area with the minimal number of fixed stations, which decreases the summary cost of the system.

Mobile stations can quickly move to an area not covered by fixed equipment. These stations are effective for radio monitoring operations when low transmitter power, high directivity of transmitting antennae and long distance to the emitter source complicate measurements or make it impossible using fixed stations. A mobile station performs operations on measuring parameters and localization of radio emission sources, both within the automated system and stand alone.

Various mini-vans, for example, Volkswagen Caravelle, Mercedes Sprinter, Ford Transit, off-road cars, for example Land Cruiser, UAZ Patriot, etc. can be used as a transport base for ARGUMENT-I radio monitoring mobile station. The technical means of mobile radio monitoring station varies depending on the purpose. Normally the mobile station includes ARTIKUL-M correlative interferometer automatic direction finder and ARGAMAK-IS measuring receiver. Operating frequency range of ARTIKUL-M Mobile Direction Finder in the maximum configuration (single antenna system) is from 1.5 to 8000 MHz. The mobile station can work in motion and at stop, controlled by automated system or in standalone mode. Even in stand-alone operation, the station provides localization of radio emission sources with high accuracy.



Operator workstations of mobile stations on the basis of UAZ Patriot and ARGUMENT-I station on the basis of Ford Transit.

Technical means having portable (transportable) design find broad application in automated systems. Such means have a considerably small weight and size, which enables their transportation not only by a vehicle, but in the hands of one or several operators.

Such means are used at fixed and temporary workstations, without power supply, and also in the open terrain. They can be quickly deployed in locations that are inaccessible for vehicles – in mountains or in the off-road conditions, used at temporary workstations, for example, on rooftop of buildings in the urban setting.

ARCHA-IT Mobile Measuring Station of Radio Monitoring and Direction Finding. Its design is similar to that of ARCHA-INM Fixed Station. The main unit ARGAMAK-IS digital panoramic receiver certified as a measuring mean with additional (second) channel of radio signal receiving, which allows measurement of signal parameters, correlative interferometer direction finding. Like ARCHA-INM station, the receiver is located in the immediate proximity to the antenna system, which ensures high sensitivity of measurements and direction finding, wide dynamic range. The difference from ARCHA-INM station is in using a removable antenna with a small weight and size. AS-HP5 portable antenna system is used for direction finding, and a external field sensor unit's omnidirectional measuring antenna is used for measurements of electromagnetic field strength instead of AS-HP5 Unlike ARCHA-INM station, the switching between operation modes of direction finding and measurement requires mechanical replacement of the antenna used. The station is additionally equipped with AS-HP-HF, AS-HP2 Antenna Systems providing for operating frequency range from 1.5 to 8000 MHz.



Transportable station of radio monitoring and direction finding ARCHA-IT and ARTIKUL-MT Transportable Automatic Direction Finder.

ARTIKUL-MT is a transportable automated correlative interferometer direction finder. ARTIKUL-MT is intended for monitoring of radio environment. It uses ARGAMAK two-channel digital radio receiver that is not certified as a type of measurements. Due to strict stability parameter requirements, the box where the receiver is located has a simplified structure and smaller sized compared to the box for ARCHA-IT station receiver. With AS-HP-HF, AS-HP2, AS-HP5 replaceable antenna systems, the operating frequency range is from 1.5 to 8000 MHz.

ARTIKUL-H1 is a manpack automatic broadband correlative interferometer direction finder. ARTIKUL-H1 is intended for operation in fixed, mobile and manpack modes. In fixed mode, the antenna system of the direction finder is located on a mast about 6 m high. In mobile mode, the antenna system of the direction finder is installed on the roof of a vehicle using a magnetic base or installed in the baggage box made of radio transparent material. In manpack mode, the antenna system and ARGAMAK-2K Two- Channel Panoramic Radio Receiver is mounted on a special light frame with shoulder straps and a waste belt allowing the operator to carry all equipment required for operation in motion. When operated in manpack mode, the total weight does not exceed 16 kg. AS-HP-HF, AS-HP1, AS-HP2 and AS-HP5 replaceable antenna systems provide direction finding within operating frequency range from 1.5 to 8000 MHz During work at a temporary stop the antenna system is located on an collapsible mast.



ARTIKUL-H1 installed on a vehicle and ARTIKUL-H1 at temporary workstations



ARTIKUL-H1 attached to the gear carried by the operator and ARTIKUL-P Portable Direction Finder.

ARTIKUL-P is a portable automated correlative interferometer direction finder intended for work at temporary workstations. The antenna system consists of two round antenna arrays – letters. The first letter has a collapsible structure of traverses, flat antenna elements. The second letter is removable. Like in other technical means, the radio direction finder uses ARGAMAK unified digital receivers located at the base of the first letter of the antenna system. In the disassembled state, the direction finder is packed in a special transportation tube. The total weight of the antenna system together with the mast, carry tube, guy wires and anchors is not more than 24 kg. Operating frequency range is from 25 to 3000 MHz.

ARC-D11 is a two-channel panoramic digital radio receiver, which is made in the form of a shock-proof case. It can be used as the transportable radio receiver in the automated system. The main purpose of ARC-D11 is search of unauthorized radio emission in engineering facilities, buildings, and structures. Besides, ARC-D11 can be used for outdoor radio monitoring, including direction finding. The set with AS-HP-HF, AS-HP1, AS-HP2 and AS-HP5 replaceable antenna systems has operating frequency range of direction fining from 1.5 MHz to 8000 MHz, and with ARC-KNV4M converter – up to 18 GHz.

Handheld means, such as ARC-RP3M Direction Finder and ARC-NK5I Manpack Measuring System are used for radio monitoring in the outdoor area and indoors, including accurate localization of radio emission sources. Apart from the panoramic spectrum analysis, detection and manual direction finding with analogous and non-overlapping band signals with digital modulation, the direction finder performs identification and selective direction finding of GSM, DECT base and subscriber substations, Wi-Fi wireless devices. During the field operation, the direction finder features a mode for automatic measurement of coordinates of the source for which bearings are taken and display of its position on the electronic map.



ARC-D11 Two-Channel Radio Receiver and ARC-RP3M Handheld Direction Finder.

Two-channel and single-channel radio receivers such as ARC-D11, ARC-D1, ARGAMAK-2K or ARGAMAK-VM0, ARGAMAK-VM1 external radio receiving modules with a set of antennae are used in AREAL system as technical means for search of unauthorized sources inside the facilities, for example, in buildings.

The unique feature of the products based on digital radio receiver of ARGAMAK family with instant view band of about 24 MHz, such as ARGAMAK-IS, ARGAMAK-CS, ARC-D11, ARC-D1, ARCHA-INM, ARTIKUL-S, ARTIKUL-M, ARCHA-IT, ARTIKUL-MT, ARTIKUL-T is availability of additional analogue path with a band of 0.5 MHz, which is extremely important for elimination of the digital path overload in conditions of complicated electromagnetic environment.

The measuring means ARGAMAK-IS, ARGAMAK-M, ARC-KNV4, ARGAMAK-RS have state certificates of the measuring equipment type and certified methods, which regulate measurement procedures, consider the recommendations of ITU-R SM.328, ITU-R SM.377, ITU-R SM.378, ITU-R SM.443, ITU-R SM 1268, ITU-R SM.182, ITU-R SM.1536, ITU-R SM.1793.

All technical means of radio monitoring on the basis of digital radio receivers of ARGAMAK family digital radio receiver, included in the stations and systems, ensure performance of highly accurate measurements, panoramic, spectrum and vector analysis of signals; in addition, they allow determination of service identifiers and parameters of telecommunication systems, such as APCO P25, DMR, GSM, UMTS, LTE, IS-95, cdma2000, EV-DO, TETRA, DECT, DVB T/T2/H, Wi-Fi, etc.

ARGAMAK-IS measuring receiver has functions of synchronization by signals of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) GPS/GLONASS, which allows increasing stable frequency of the reference generator from 10-9 to 2×10-12 and implementing high precision measurement of the frequency of the received signal. This provides measurement of parameters of digital TV signals with high frequency, including frequency measurement. According to the certified measurement method (certificate of qualification No.0001/РОСС СОБ 6.00095.2013/2015 of 20.10.2015), the relative error of the frequency assessment does not exceed 5×10-11. In this case, the error of the signal level measurement does not exceed 1 dB, the error of the frequency bandwidth measurement is 0.1%. The measurement error values meet the requirements of GOST R 55696-2013, GOST R 5939-2014 and the current norms of State Radio Frequency Committee of the Russian Federation.

The high frequency synchronization from GNSS implemented in the digital radio receiver of ARGAMAK-IS and ARGAMAK-RS enables to determine time of signal arrival to receivers with a frequency up to 20-50 nsec, which allows using of time-difference of arrival methods for measurement of radio emission source coordinates not requiring direction finding in the automated systems on their basis. The localization method depends on quantity of radio receivers, their mutual location, conditions for receiving radio signals, bandwidth of received radio signals, and other factors. The system, including a direction finder and measuring receivers, uses hybrid algorithms utilizing information of time, levels and angle of signal arrival to increase accuracy of the radio frequency source localization.


Table 1. Technical specifications of fixed and mobile radio monitoring stations

Parameters
ARCHA-IN
ARCHA-INM
ARGUMENT-I
Panoramic spectrum analysis, single-channel and multi-channel direction finding
Operating frequency range (basic configuration/max. configuration), MHz
20–3000 / 1.5–8000
20–3000 / 1.5-3000
20–3000 / 1.5–8000
Panoramic spectrum analysis rate, GHz/sec
up to 20 (within 20 - 3000 MHz)
Multi-channel direction finding rate, GHz/s
up to 2.5 (within 20 - 3000 MHz)
Maximum simultaneous bandwidth, MHz
up to 40
Field sensitivity
See Table 2
Accuracy (RMS)
See Table 2
DF antenna system remote location range
up to 100 m
-
Measuring of field strength and radio signal parameters
Operating frequency range (basic configuration/max. configuration), MHz
20–3000 / 0.009-18000
20–3000 / 20–8000
20–3000 / 0.009-18000
Maximum simultaneous bandwidth, MHz
up to 20
Recording of radio signal within the band, MHz
up to 40
Analysis of service identifiers and parameters of
GSM, UMTS, LTE, IS-95, cdma2000, EV-DO, TETRA, DECT, Wi-Fi, DVB T/T2/H, DMR, APCO P25
GSM, UMTS, LTE, IS-95, cdma2000,
EV-DO, TETRA, DECT, DVB T/T2/H, DMR, APCO P25
Mast-mounted antenna system remote location range
up to 100 m
-


Table 2. Accuracy and sensitivity of fixed and mobile direction finders.

Name of technical mean (antenna system)
DF RMS (degree) vs. frequency (MHz)
DF sensitivity (V/m) vs. frequency (MHz)
ARTIKUL-INM (AS-PP5), ARTIKUL-S (AS-PP4)

ARTIKUL-M (AS-MP)


Table 3. Technical specifications of measuring and DF means

Parameters
Name of technical mean (antenna system)
Transportable
Portable
ARCHA-IT (AS-HP5)
ARTIKUL-MT (AS-HP5)
ARC-D11
(AS-HP-HF, AS-HP5, AS-HP2)
ARTIKUL-H1
(AS-HP-HF, AS-HP5, AS-HP2)
ARTIKUL-P (AS-PP17)
Mast-mounted antenna system
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Vehicle-mounted antenna system
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Ability to be installed on man-caring frame
No
No
No
Yes
No
Admissible distance from antenna system to operator
Up to 80 m
Up to 80 m
Up to 6 m
Up to 6 m
Up to 80 m
Operating frequency range, DF mode
20 – 3000 MHz
On a mast, single antenna system
Basic 203000 MHz,
Complete 208000 MHz.
O a vehicle's roof, set of replaceable antenna systems
203000 MHz or 38 GHz
On a mast, single antenna system
Basic 203000 MHz,
Complete 1.58000 MHz.
Set of replaceable antenna system to be mount on a tripod or vehicle's roof
Basic 203000 MHz,
Complete 1.58000 MHz.
20-3000 MHz
Typical DF accuracy (RMS)
See Table 4
Typical DF field sensitivity (RMS)
See Table 4
Multi-channel direction finding rate
up to 2 500 MHz/s
up to 150 MHz/s
Maximum simultaneous bandwidth
1 MHz (1.5- 30 MHz)
10 MHz (20 – 110 MHz)
20 MHz (110 – 220 MHz)
40 MHz (220–3000 MHz)
5 MHz
Intermodulation free dynamic range (3rd and 2nd order)
75 dB, min
Dynamic range with attenuator on / attenuator off
140 dB / 80 dB
Spurious rejection
80 dB, min
75 dB, min
Relative frequency instability
10-9
5x10-7
Panoramic spectrum analysis rate / spectrum discreteness
Up to 20 GHz/s / 6.25 kHz within the range 20 – 3000 MHz
Up to 3.5 GHz/s / 6.25 kHz
within the range 20 – 3000 MHz
Receiver tuning resolution
1 Hz
Demodulation
CW, AM, FM, SSB, USB, LSB, ASK, PSK, FSK
Control
1 Gbit LAN
USB, remote based on TCP/IP
GPS / GLONASS
Integrated
Power supply
AC mains 220 V, vehicle DC 12/24 V
Operating t C for antenna system and power supply unit
From -40C to +50C
Operating t C for equipment inside vehicle cabin
From -10C to +45C
Maximum altitude above-sea level
4500 m


Table 4. Accuracy and sensitivity of transportable and portable direction finders.

Name of technical mean (antenna system)
DF RMS (degree) vs. frequency (MHz)
DF sensitivity (V/m) vs. frequency (MHz)
ARTIKUL-P (AS-PP17)

ARCHA-IT, ARTIKUL-H1, ARTIKUL-MT, ARC-D11
(AS-HP-HF)

ARCHA-IT, ARTIKUL-H1, ARTIKUL-MT, ARC-D11
(AS-HP5)

ARCHA-IT, ARTIKUL-H1, ARTIKUL-MT, ARC-D11
(AS-HP2)


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