ARMADA Automated Spectrum Monitoring System


The structure of ARMADA Automated Radio Monitoring System is determined by certain application conditions and can change depending on the Customer's needs. The examples considered below are not the only possible options of the system implementation.

ARMADA ASMS

National level radio monitoring system


ARMADA automated spectrum monitoring system consists of the following units: control center, control stations and technical means of radio monitoring. In order to ensure the use of the radio frequency spectrum within the country, the system can have up to four hierarchy levels.


Example how ARMADA ASMS national level nodes can be deployed

The lower level is represented by technical means of radio monitoring, which are managed by the higher nodes in accordance with their priorities. The configuration of the technical means of radio monitoring included in the system is greatly determined by the area, landscape, type of used REM in a certain area. ARMADA ASMS of the national level my include the following radio monitoring technical means:

  • Fixed stations and radio monitoring systems
  • Mobile radio monitoring stations
  • Portable (transportable) technical means
  • Manpack technical means.



The hierarchy of ARMADA ASMS of the national level

In order to ensure the maximum coverage of REM monitored by the system, radio monitoring technical means are installed in large cities, which are characterized by the highest occupancy of the frequency range. Outside the complex urban conditions, where reflections of radio waves is much lower, and also the number of controlled REM is lower, the number of fixed technical means of radio monitoring decreases. It is desirable that any point of the monitored territory was within the operation zone of at least two fixed technical means, ensuring coordinates measurement of radio emission sources by the goniometric method, e.g. ARCHA-IN (M) and ARTIKUL-SN. Size of the of electromagnetic availability zone of the fixed means network is determined by many considerations, the lift height of the receiving antenna of the technical means of radio monitoring, its sensitivity, capacity of radio emission sources. For example, for ARTIKUL-S Radio Direction Finders with a sensitivity of 5 V/m in frequency range of 25-100 MHz and 800-2000 MHz, 50 m of antenna systems lift height, the detection zone radius of sources with the power of 4 W is approximately 11–13 km, and the area of possible localization zone of radio emission sources is about 250 km2. This is already quite enough for coverage of a small community, while a greater number of fixed technical means of radio monitoring is required for large cities. For example, adding one more radio direction finder increases area of source localization 1.5 times.

Localization of radio emission sources is possible not only by the goniometric method, but also by time-difference of arrival ones and by combined (hybrid) methods using a radio frequency sensor network on the basis of measuring compact receivers ARGAMAK-RS. For localization of radio emission sources by time-difference of arrival methods at least three sensors are to be deployed.


Electromagnetic availability zones for two or three radio direction finders

To deploy a direction finding network in addition to the fixed technical means, mobile stations (ARGUMENT-I or mobile systems on the basis of ARTIKUL-H1) and/or portable technical means (ARCHA-IT, ARTIKUL-MT, ARTIKUL-P) are used, which can be quickly moved to the specified area and establish a pair with any of the fixed direction finders for expansion of the localization zone, and even localize a radio emission source outside the operation zone of the fixed facility. Therefore, mobile and portable means are intended for radio monitoring in locations where the low capacity of transmitters, high directivity of transmitting antennae, remoteness of the radio emission source make measurements by fixed means difficult or impossible. Besides, mobile and portable means can work in stand alone mode, as they ensure localization of radio emission sources immediately in motion or during stops. Handheld technical means (for example ARC-RP3M) are used as the last mile equipment, allowing localization of radio emission sources in places that are inaccessible for vehicles.

The table provides possible options of the radio monitoring technical means configuration for several types of inhabited localities.

Table 1. Options of the configuration of the radio monitoring technical means

No.
Inhabited locality
Population, thousand people
Area, km2
Radio monitoring means
Quantity
1
CAPITAL
>1000
>500
ARCHA-IN
3
ARTIKUL-S
2
ARGUMENT-I
3
ARTIKUL-MT
1
ARC-RP3M
3
2
City
>1000
>500
ARGAMAK-RSS
5
ARGUMENT-I
2
ARTIKUL-MT
1
ARC-RP3M
2
3
City
<1000
250 - 500
ARCHA-IN
2
ARTIKUL-S
1
ARGUMENT-I
2
ARC-RP3M
1
4
City
<1000
250 - 500
ARCHA-INM
1
ARTIKUL-S
1
ARGUMENT-I
1
ARTIKUL-H1
1
ARC-RP3M
1
5
Town
<500
<250
ARCHA-INM
1
ARTIKUL-H1
1
ARCHA-IT
1


The system is controlled from Control Center, which is located in the capital. Control stations are located in regions provide for the same functions as Control Center but at lower level of hierarchy.

Structure of the control center or station:

  • Server and network equipment
  • Communication and data transmission facilities
  • Back-up power system
  • Operator AWS's

Options:

  • System of visualization and collective information processing.

Server equipment includes the main and the backup servers, where the database is stored and also software allowing system control from automated workstations is installed. Additional server with large volume of disk space is used for storage of backup copies of the database contents. Backing up is done automatically with periodicity defined by the system administrator.

Operator's AWS's provides a user interface for system operation. With their help, operators, in accordance with their specialization and access rights, send radio monitoring tasks to the nodes and read the results of their completion, and also get access to information stored in the DB.


Structural diagram of the control center or point.

Network equipment is intended for setting up of data communication inside the center or the control station, and also its interfacing with ARMADA ASMS nodes Additional communication and data transmission facilities are intended for creation of backup management channels of the system nodes of an alternative basis outside the public data transmission networks.

Backup power system is intended for supporting the function of the control center or the point when the external power network is down. It includes uninterruptible power sources (UPS) and a generator. UPS ensures uninterruptible operation of the main systems of the control center or point for the period during the loss of the external power supply and start of the generator unit.

System of visualization and teamwork with information, intended for holding a meeting, video conference, as well as dispaly on video wall of most important actual information required to make management decisions.

Control stations can be set up on mobile carrier. A mobile control station is designed to control radio monitoring system in case of failure of the fixed control station, and may also be used as a control station, if it is necessary to increase system performance under complex electromagnetic conditions or in special circumstances of radio monitoring.



Mobile control center possible design

RFS ACS Universiade 2013


July 6 to 17, 2013, Kazan hosted XXVII World Summer Universiade where 351 medals events in 27 sports were held to more than twelve thousand participants from 162 countries, which was a record for all student games. For the Universiade 64 sports facilities were involved, 33 of them were directly used for the competition. More than 120,000 guests visited the Universiade, three Russian and thirteen international broadcasters provided live transmissions. More than thirty television commentators, two hundred cameras and fifteen mobile television stations worked on daily basis.

Such large-scale sporting event inevitably was accompanied by a sharp increase in the concentration of radio transmitters within a limited area.

Success of such event would be impossible without efficient planning and allocation of radio frequencies, radio-electronic equipment testing and licensing and reliable monitoring of their use in real time. For operational processing of the use of electronic equipment that are received at the last moment, especially fast and flexible frequency management directly to at the site are required. To solve these issues in the course of preparing and holding XXVII World Summer Universiade, Universiade 2013 ASMMS was used, which was a modification of ARMADA ASMS with additional functions for spectrum monitoring at major mass events.

Technical means included the following:

  • Unattended fixed radio monitoring points (RMP-U)
  • Object radio monitoring points (ORMP)
  • Mobile radio monitoring stations (systems) (MRMS)
  • Manpack radio monitoring equipment which is used by radio monitoring and interference search groups (RMG)
  • Labeling and measurement laboratories (LMLs).



Components of Universiade 2013 ASMMS

The system provides various options to control the equipment. Tasks can be assigned from a control center, from an automated workstation of attended stations or radio monitoring systems. It's also possible to control from any PC connected to the system, for example from AWS of an interacting government agency. Encryption is used to ensure security of the data that circulate in the system including its local networks.

Essential software element is a database, which is included in the software at all nodes. The DB is designed to record data about applicants, radio frequencies and radio-electronic equipment, as well as infrastructure facilities, radio monitoring technical means and radio monitoring data. DB makes possible to visualize the data, to generate reports, to send data to other information systems, etc.

Engineering and technical infrastructure includes communication lines and data transmission nodes, service radio communication system, data transmission equipment, server equipment, engineering structures, etc.

Measures used to manage spectrum during Kazan Universiade preparation and holding were divided into three control levels, namely city, zone and object levels.

City level uses a network of five remotely controlled fixed radio monitoring station (RMS), it provided direction finding, localization and measurement of radio signal parameters.

Zonal level consists of twelve mobile monitoring stations. It provided direction finding, localization and measurement of radio signal parameters, including low-power sources. Location of Universiade sports facilities (orange flags) and the borders of three radio monitoring zones (the fourth zone includes shooting range located outside of the city) are shown in picture below. There were up to two crews with mobile systems and also radio monitoring and interference search groups with manpack equipment in each zone simultaneously.

In order to provide site (local) level of radio monitoring eleven ORMP's and six radio monitoring groups were used, these groups had manpack radio monitoring facilities that made it possible to search and localize noise sources in the most hard-to-reach places. The main work on frequency band monitoring was executed at site level in automatic mode with the use of radio monitoring events. ORMP monitored the most important frequency bands around the clock, if radio sources not recorded in RFC ACS accounting database appeared then a notification on a radio monitoring event at the particular object was generated at an operator workstation, and then based on decision of situation room operations duty unregistered sources of radiation were searched and localized.



Universiade objects and radio monitoring zones

RFC ACS staff was integrated into operational control center which consisted of the the staff of the situation room (SR) and external staff (LML, mobile monitoring stations and RMG crews).

Ten operator workstations were deployed in SR. They were used to manage fixed and site radio monitoring stations, mobile stations and radio monitoring groups, special transport and service radio communication system.

Situation room management subsystem included a set of central database server equipment, employee AWS's, videowall, audio conference equipment and video conferencing equipment. Server equipment consisted of three servers, two of them were clustered. The third server was intended for storage of backup system data copies.



Operation of duty shift and server equipment in the situation room

Communication and data subsystem provided data exchange within the control center and with external nodes that were system management objects. Network equipment provided operation from two Internet providers (one of them provided the main communication channel and the other provided the backup data channel) with automatic switchover in case of loss and recovery of the main communication channel. The communication subsystem also included a server that managed the operation of service radio communication network deployed on the basis of MOTOTRBO digital communication platform. Service radio communication network had three repeaters, which provided radio communications in all areas of the city and forty eight subscriber stations.



Antennae of service radio communications repeater on a telecommunications tower and equipment of service radio communications repeater

Remote workstations were deployed outside the situation room in mobile radio monitoring stations in labeling and measuring laboratories, RMG groups, Universiade Directorate, as well as in security service agencies; more than 40 AWS's were used. Remote workstations supported all features of operations in the system. Backup control channels were used, if wired channels would fail then automatic switchover to wireless 3G channels occurred.

During the Universiade we used two types of fixed equipment: RMP-U with antenna systems located on the roofs of tall buildings and ORMP installed directly at Universiade objects. We also used MRMS and manpack equipment which was used to equip radio monitoring groups (RMG's).



Features of radio monitoring equipment use

The main equipment of RMP-U were ARCHA-IN remotely controlled unattended fixed stations, which included ARTIKUL-S Fixed Direction Finder (1.5 – 3000 MHz) and ARGAMAK-IS Panoramic Field Strength Meter (0.009 – 8000 MHz)



Equipment of ARCHA-IN Station and antenna systems of the meter and direction finder on a roof of a residential building

Object radio monitoring center were also based on ARGAMAK-IS Measuring Receiver, they had thermostatic waterproof cases with alarm sensors, signals from them were received in RFC ACS. ORMP was installed directly in the most important sports facilities and provided round-the-clock monitoring of short range radio-electronic equipment, they identified and measured signals in the range from HF to the lower part of SHF range, including signals from television cameras with wireless links, they analyzed service identifiers and parameters of cellular communication systems and wireless access systems. The highest operating frequency of ORMP was 8 GHz.



Rowing Sports Center (the orange circle shows ORMP antenna) and object radio monitoring station located on the roof of Rowing Sports Center

Fixed RMP-U and ORKP equipment was remotely managed from the situation room, and if required they were managed from mobile stations or radio monitoring groups. The control was provided via a wired communication channel, it was backed up by 3G wireless channel, as well as by radio channel for transmission of alarm messages based on deployed MOTOTRBO service radio network.



Object radio monitoring station located in Kazan Arena stadium (orange circle shows antenna of MOTOTRBO emergency channel system)
and ORKP antenna inside Kazan Arena stadium

Mobile equipment was used for radio monitoring operations if low power of transmitters, high directivity of transmitting antennae and the distance from the radio source made it difficult or impossible to make measurements and localize the sources using fixed equipment.

ARGUMENT-I Mobile Stations and mobiles stations of other types were used as mobile stations at the Universiade. All MRMS's could be integrated with RFC ACS, but direct control of radio monitoring equipment system was implemented only for ARGUMENT-I Stations. These stations provided measurement of radio signals up to 43 GHz and automatic direction finding within 1.5 to 8000 GHz range. In order to extend radio monitoring and amplitude direction finding range up to 43 GHz, as well as for operation as LML station, the station had spectrum analyzer integrated in RFC ACS, and also P6-69 measuring antenna (18000-40000 MHz).

Data exchange between the mobile station and ASMMS was provided via 3G-modem wireless channel. Also during the preparatory period all main competition places were equipped with special places for wired connection of mobile station to the Internet, so during parking near such sites wired connection over Ethernet cable was used.



ARGUMENT-I mobile station on duty near a sports venue
and Operator’s workstation in the mobile station

Manpack equipment was used by radio monitoring groups in hard-to-reach places: on the roofs of tall buildings, indoors, including Universiade sports venues. ARC RP3M Handheld Direction Finders and handheld receivers with a set of directional antennae were used as manpack equipment.



Radio monitoring group during search of an interference source in a stadium and monitoring of electromagnetic environment by radio monitoring control group in the stadium
ARC-RP3M Handheld Direction Finder is used as radio monitoring equipment

To solve radio monitoring task during major events, ASMS included the following functional subsystems:

  • Application service
  • Radio-electronic equipment testing and labeling

Application service was designed for automated processing of application for the use of radio-electronic equipment. Universiade information portal had a service that permitted portal users to send an application for the use of radio-electronic equipment. The applications were automatically submitted to PFC ACS database where they received Accepted status. Experts of Universiade Directorate used RFC ACS AWS that was located in Universiade Village preprocessed the applications received and made a decision: to reject the application and to notify the applicant or to continue processing. If the application was approved then it was assigned Under consideration status.

All application with Under consideration status were processed by specialists of radio frequencies department using AWSes located in the situation room. Based on the results of processing the application is rejected with immediate notification of Directorate employees or they were entered in the database with Scheduled status, this was accompanied by allocating time-frequency resource for radio-electronic means specified in the application in declared sports facilities. For such applications after their evaluation by Universiade Directorate experts and possible improvement, Guidelines and Conditions of REM Use electronic document was generated that gave the applicants the right to go through REM testing and labeling procedure.



Processing of REM usage application

RES testing and labeling subsystem was used for technical verification of radio-electronic equipment parameters compliance with Recommendations on REM Use Conditions and labeling the REM with a colored sticker. Testing included checking that actual REM emissions specifications (frequency, bandwidth and level) comply with issued recommendations. A decision to label the REM was taken in automatic mode based on the results of the measurements. Testing and labeling were executed in labeling and measuring laboratories that were deployed on the basis of fixed and mobile stations. Local LML database was automatically synchronized with the central ASMMS database via data networks and LML operation was provided both when the communication channels operate and when they failed.



Processing of REM usage application

Before testing, RES user submitted the number of issued recommendation. Based on this number a list of frequencies is displayed in LML employee AWS that subject to verification. During testing measurement results for frequency bandwidth and frequency were compared with bandwidth tolerances in automatic mode and a decision about the possibility of REM operation in accordance with Guidelines requirements.

If a positive decision was taken on test results then a marking label was printed and the status of frequency assignments in the database was changed to “Effective”. The labels were pasted to REM and they permitted to identify it uniquely. Labels were used as seals, i. e. when one tries to remove the label then it was destroyed. The label contained object number or object group at the Universiade, the area where it was permitted to use the REM, the period of authorized REM use and REM identifier in the database.



Radio-electronic equipment testing and labeling algorithm

Testing and labeling subsystem permitted to put bar codes on the labels, the bar code contained all required data in encrypted form. Based on the results of reading barcodes by scanners at incoming control terminals it was possible to monitor REM that were carried to sport venues.

Universiade 2013 ACS PSD provided remote control of geographically remote fixed, mobile and handheld radio monitoring means, testing and marking of radio-electronic means, interaction with external information structures when Summer Universiade in Kazan was prepared and held. The system enabled effective personnel management, coordinated task assignment, control of their execution and necessary decisions in real time.



Checking parameters satellite transmitter mobile television station and an example of identification label

With the help of application service subsystem during preparation and holding the Universiade 285 applications for the use of REM were received, 39 of them were rejected. Ten LMLs (two fixed LMLs and eight mobile ones) were deployed in order to test REM's. In total, 8,368 REM's were tested and labeled, including 6,714 land mobile service REM, 1,364 short-range devices, 20 fixed satellite service REM, 266 fixed service RES and 4 radio location service REMs.

During twelve days of the Universiade employees of radio-frequency service detected 207 violations of frequency use.

The experience of using Universiade 2013 ACS PSD was used by radio frequency service at XXII Olympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi and was presented as an ITU contribution from Russian Federation.


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