AREAL Automated Spectrum Monitoring System


One of the priority areas in the development of automated systems and radio monitoring equipment is detection of unauthorized transmissions of any communication systems, including those made by command link transmitters and data lines of air drones (AD), as well as localization of radio emission sources in confined spaces, including buildings, as well as vehicle-based sources, etc. Main users of such systems are law enforcement, overseeing, security, and departmental structures.

ASR AREAL is intended for revealing of unauthorized radio emission and localization of their sources. It's based on the same hardware software platform as ASR ARMADA. ASR AREAL can perform continuous, periodic, or on-demand radio monitoring. The configuration of included technical means varies accordingly.

The main task of ASMS is achieved by searching "new" radio emissions, assessment of their hazard degree, localization of their sources and, eventually, displaying results of their work on electronic plans of objects and maps, saving information in the databases of the radio electronic environment. ASR AREAL enables the user to:

  • Analyze frequency range occupancy in deployment area and determine actual usage of frequencies
  • Identify changes of radio frequency environment (RFE) and detect new radio emissions
  • Search and localization of emission sources outdoor
  • Classify the detected radio emission sources and estimate their importance or criticality
  • Maintain the radio emission sources database for the monitored areas, zones, premises, or vehicles
  • Process and systematize radio monitoring results and update the corresponding databases
  • Display structure and condition of the system assemblies, location of radioelectronic equipment, and mapping of radio monitoring data for a specific area or facility
  • Detect radio networks and directions and link them to radio emission sources.
  • Monitor the progress of radio monitoring task
  • Analyze radio monitoring results over a time period in automated mode
  • Export from and import to reference databases, as well as monitoring results database
  • Perform automated monitoring of equipment operation time and technical condition
  • Generation of reports as per operation results.

ASR AREAL

Typical scenario within protected area


Subject to the analysis data, all variety of ASR AREAL operation conditions can be reduced to several standard scenarios Table 1 presents typical operation scenarios of ASR AREAL, ARMS configuration for each scenario, as well as expected outcome of using ARMS, basic functions, composition and basic specifications of the equipment and radio monitoring stages.


Table 1. ASR AREAL typical usage scenarios

Scenario code
Scenario conditions
Duration of monitoring
Periodicity of monitoring
Expected results
Area of monitoring
AREAL-1
Along an extended monitoring boundary and at the adjacent territory
Continuous monitoring
-
Coordinates and parameters of new RES's, continuously updated REF database
AREAL-2.
Limited outdoor area - local operations area (counter terrorism operation, maneuvers, sport events, etc.)
Throughout operation activities
On-demand
Coordinates and parameters of new RES's, updated REF database
AREAL-3
Limited outdoor area, 2 stages:
Stage 1: primary radio monitoring
Depending on RFE analysis data
On-demand
Coordinates for transportable vehicles
Stage 2: detailed RFE monitoring
Depending on radio traffic intensity
One-time, cyclic, or on-demand
Updated RFE database for the particular area
AREAL-4
Completely confined territory
Continuous monitoring
-
Parameters and coordinates of unauthorized RESs
External monitoring of radio emissions coming from premises of the object, mapping of RES on the object's layout
On-demand
Cyclic or on-demand
Suggestions to eliminate identified violations
Radio monitoring within premises of protected objects
AREAL-5
Remote radio monitoring inside premises (zones) of protected objects
Continuous monitoring
-
Coordinates and parameters of unauthorized RES's, updated REF database
Radio monitoring inside a separate premise or in a vehicle
Depending on RFE and on demand
Cyclic or on-demand
Suggestions to eliminate identified data leakage channels


All the scenarios and options for the AREAL-1 to AREAL-5 operations are provisional only. In practice, some other scenarios are possible, however, these should not alter the technical approaches provided herein.

ASR AREAL structure and components

for typical scenario


ASR AREAL configuration depends on operation scenarios, task execution time and periodicity of radio monitoring.

Maximum ASR AREAL configuration includes Control Center and technical means distributed over the monitored territory and in premises. One of these technical means can be located at the same place as the Control Center.

The necessary amount of radio monitoring technical means in ASR AREAL depends on the monitored area, its relief, the time assigned for the radio monitoring task In an ideal case, any point of the monitored area must be located within the coverage of at least two equipment units determining the RES coordinates and parameters. However, this approach may leads to high cost of the system. In this case there can be used another approach to ARMS design: a radio monitoring system shall comprise fixed stations with combined coverage of the highest-perimeter areas; mobile stations installed on land, air, or water vehicles; and portable (transportable) stations, which can be rapidly deployed in respective areas.

Actual electromagnetic availability area (EAA) of ASR AREAL is determined by the quantity of equipment used, its EAA sensitivity and the antenna system altitude. Precise determination of RES position depends on instrument accuracy of the equipment used and quantity of the RES monitoring equipment within the monitored area.


ASR AREAL-1 configuration and components


ASR AREAL-1 provides for continuous monitoring along an extended monitoring boundary and at the adjacent territory. This scenario is specific in that there is no distinctive boundary throughout the monitored perimeter. The extent of the monitored territory is determined by the EAZ of the equipment located on it and can be expanded using mobile and manpack equipment.



Configuration of ASR AREAL-1

The following equipment should be placed along the monitoring boundaries:

  • Unattended fixed radio monitoring and direction finding stations: ARCHA-IN and ARCHA-INM
  • Unattended fixed direction finders: ARCTIKUL-SN
  • Mobile radio monitoring and direction finding stations: ARGUMENT
  • Portable direction finding systems base on ARTIKUL-M, ARCHA-IT or ARTIKUL-MT
  • Manpack and handheld direction finders: ARTIKUL-H1, ARC-RP3M
  • Communication and data transmission equipment
  • Control Centers (CC) receiving data from radio monitoring technical means in real time or periodically.

The results of radio monitoring will be delivered from technical means to the Control Center or stored for the subsequent automated deferred processing. The Control Center can be combined with a mobile station.

Taking into consideration the continuous nature of radio monitoring, the equipment used must be as complete and optimal as possible and have the optimal operating frequency, performance, and functionality.

In its complete configuration, the ASR AREAL-1 allows automated radio monitoring, including:

  • Searching for new emissions in the range from 0.009 to 40000 MHz, with a panoramic analysis rate of up to 20 GHz/s
  • Automatic direction finding and localization of RES on the terrain, including mapping, in the range of frequencies from 1.5 to 8000 MHz
  • Automated direction finding and localization of RES on the terrain, including mapping, in the range of frequencies from 8 to 40 GHz.
  • Manual direction finding and localization of RES on the terrain, including mapping, in the range of frequencies from 0.3 to 18000 MHz
  • Recording, technical analysis and automated postprocessing of radio signals within bandwidth up to 40 MHz


Configuration of ASR AREAL-2:


ASR AREAL-2 is intended for one-time or periodic radio monitoring in confined area with an unknown radio electronic environment. As it's in case of ASR AREAL-1, this version of the system is also specific in that there is no distinctive boundary along the perimeter of the monitored area. The size of the monitored territory is determined by the EAZ of the equipment located (permanently or temporarily) on it and can be expanded using mobile and manpack equipment.



Configuration of ASR AREAL-2

The voluntary restriction of tasks for this scenario, for example, the absence of an in-depth RFE study, is caused by time limitations and minimization of the number of components and the overall weight/size of the equipment. An in-depth RFE study can be carried out using the AREAL-3 scenario (see below).

In its complete configuration, the ASR AREAL-2 uses:

In its complete configuration, the ASR AREAL-2 allows automated radio monitoring, including:

  • Searching for new emissions in the range from 0.3 MHz to 40 GHz, with a panoramic analysis rate of up to 20 GHz/s
  • Automatic direction finding and localization of radio emission sources on the terrain, including mapping:
  • In case of joint operation of the direction finders:

    • Within the range from 1.5 to 8000 MHz for ARGUMENT, ARTIKUL-H1, ARC-D11; or from 25 to 8000 MHz for other direction finders, when placed on temporary posts or when one of them is placed on a car or another vehicle

    In case of standalone operation of the direction finders:

    • In the range from 1.5 to 8000 MHz for ARGUMENT, ARTIKUL-H1, ARC-D11; or from 25 to 8000 MHz for other direction finders, when the automatic direction finder is placed on a vehicle
    • In the range from 110 to 8,000 MHz, when the ARTIKUL-H1 automatic direction finder is carried by operator
  • Manual direction finding and localization of radio emission sources on the terrain, including mapping, in the range from 0.3 to 18000 MHz, when the АRC-RP3M Direction Finder is used in standalone mode
  • Recording, technical analysis and automated postprocessing of radio signals within bandwidth up to 40 MHz.


Functions and components of ASR AREAL-3


ASR AREAL-3 provides in-depth study and localization of RFE on a confined area or the adjoining territory. This scenario is also specific in that there is no distinctive boundary throughout the whole monitored perimeter.



Possible configurations of ASR AREAL-3

ASR AREAL-3 can include:

  • Mobile radio monitoring and direction finding stations: ARGUMENT
  • Mobile direction finding systems base on ARCHA-IT, ARTIKUL-MT, ARTIKUL-H1 or ARC-D11
  • Transportable recording and technical analysis system: ARGAMAK-CST
  • Communication and data transmission equipment
  • Remote control, data collection and deferred processing center

This scenario makes provisions for the use of a network of ARGAMAK-CST maintenance-free transportable remote-controlled sets for recording and technical analysis, the data from which are transferred to the remote Control Center for further analysis.

Direction finding of new RFE can be performed when necessary using mobile stations.

Radio monitoring tasks are solved by ASR AREAL-3 in two stages:

On first stage mobile station is moved to the area to obtain more precise data about relief, localize RES, and choose locations for the ARGAMAK-CST systems installation. Collected information is used on second stage, when ARGAMAK-CST Transportable Systems are deployed within this area. If needed, they can be combined with a broadband communication network. If there are no communication channels between the stations, the data exchange (mission statement and data acquisition) can be carried out using removable media.

The information received from a mobile stations and from transportable sets is processed in the remote control center. The data can be transferred to the remote control center via wire or wireless channels, or on external media.


Functions and components of ASR AREAL-4


ASR AREAL-4 is intended for the following:

  • Search for unauthorized radio emission sources within monitored completely confined area
  • External monitoring of radio emissions coming from premises of the object
  • Localization and mapping of RES.

This scenario is specific in that there is a distinctive boundary along the perimeter of the monitored area and the access of bystanders is restricted. Industrial facilities and institutional buildings can be located on the same territory.



Configuration of ASR AREAL-4

This scenario is specific in that there is a distinctive boundary along the perimeter of the monitored area and the access of bystanders is restricted. Industrial facilities and institutional buildings can be located on the same territory.

This version of ASMS implies continuous radio monitoring tasks in confined areas with security forces and/or industrial or research establishments situated on them. Electromagnetic availability zone of the system, which depends on EAZ of technical means included inside the system (temporary or permanent) and can be extended with mobile or manpack technical means, must be as close to the monitored area.

ASR AREAL-4 allows solving several tasks:

  • Constant radio monitoring at confined monitored area, searching for and identifying unauthorized radio emissions, localizing their sources, and populating databases specifying the RFE parameters within the total EAZ of all the ARMS's used.
  • Outdoor monitoring of radio emissions, measurement of their level, and comparison to permitted norms, as well as localization of building areas where the emissions originate from.

Radio monitoring within protected area is performed with fixed (ARCHA-INM) and mobile (ARGUMENT) radio monitoring and direction finding stations, fixed (ARTIKUL-SN), mobile (ARTIKUL-M) and transportable (ARTIKUL-MT) direction finders, manpack automatic (ARTIKUL-H1) and handheld manual (ARC-RP3M) direction finders deployed within the area.



Measurement of radio emission level using the ARGUMENT-I station

Measurement of radio emission levels on the boundaries of monitored facilities; localization of unauthorized RES; cartographic display during outdoor radio monitoring: this task is solved using the ARGUMENT-I mobile radio monitoring and direction finding station, including a set of measuring antennae in a combination with a video surveillance kit and the the SMO-SEKTOR software package. The results of RES direction finding are displayed over building image, received from a video camera.



Display of RES direction finding results on top of building image


ASR AREAL-5 functions and components


AREAL-5 ASMS is intended for radio monitoring of one or more premises (zones) within one object, radio monitoring of a vehicle to find unauthorized radio emission sources, their identification, assessment of hazard degree and their localization.

Fixed distribution systems of remote radio monitoring ARC-D13R, ARC-D15R are used for radio monitoring inside buildings. Portable modules of these systems ensuring receipt of radio signals in the operating frequency range are located in rooms (zones) of the building. One or several portable modules are installed outdoors, which allows comparison of the signal level indoors and outdoors. Signals from portable modules come to the local control server, which performs analysis of the electromagnetic environment in the building, detection of new signals and localization of their sources on the basis of amplitude, time-difference of arrival or hybrid algorithms. The remote radio monitoring system is deployed in every building requiring continuous monitoring of electromagnetic environment. The system is managed from the control center, which can be in the monitored territory or far away from it.



Structure of AREAL-5 ASMS with ARC-D15R systems

ARC-D11 is used for search of unauthorized radio emissions in cases involving periodic monitoring of electromagnetic environment in one premises or a vehicle, or to monitor radio emissions in premises where there is no possibility of permanent installation of radio monitoring means. In this case the technical means can be also controlled from a remote control center, as it takes place in case of remote radio monitoring system.

In the both cases (using remote radio monitoring system or ARC-D11), ARC-RP3M Handheld Direction Finder is used for more accurate localization of the radio emission source.


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